Korea Seoul West Mission

Here are free resources about the Korea Seoul West Mission:

*Other Mission Pages: Korea LDS Missions.

Korea Seoul West Mission Address

Here’s a recent address for the Korea Seoul West Mission. We try to keep this information up to date, but it’s a good idea to check the mission address with several sources, including your mission packet or the mission office.

This mission does not currently exist.

Phone Number: N/A
Mission President: N/A

Korea Seoul West Mission Map

Here’s a link to the mission map for the Korea Seoul West Mission (LDS). To access the official, up-to-date LDS.org map for the Seoul West Mission

*Mission does not currently exist. (Browse LDS.org mission maps)

Videos with Korea Seoul West RMs

Here are in-depth YouTube video interviews with returned missionaries from the Korea Seoul West Mission.  We interview hundreds of returned missionaries each year, so check back regularly to see new RM interviews.

mission interview

Videos about South Korea

Here are LDS-friendly educational videos about South Korea. We scoured YouTube to find the best quality videos about South Korea, that are free from inappropriate music, immodesty and profanity.

places  history  food  nature  language  LDS Church  time lapses  nature  Traditions  cities

Korea Seoul West Missionary Blogs

Here’s a list of LDS missionary blogs for the Korea Seoul West Mission. This blog list includes the missionary’s name, URL and when their mission blog was updated.

*Send your missionary a gift (mission-specific shirts, ties, Christmas stockings/ornaments, pillowcases, etc.)

none found yet

Korea Seoul West Mission Groups

Here are Seoul West Mission Groups- for LDS missionary moms, returned missionaries, mission presidents and other alumni of the mission.

  1. Korea Seoul West Mission (Ringwood) Group (262 members)
  2. Korea Seoul West Mission Min, Hyae-kee 서울서 선교부 민혜기 Group (146 members)
  3. Korea Seoul West Mission, 1992-1995 Group (74 members)
  4. Korea Seoul West Mission 1983-1986 Group (53 members)
  5. Korea Seoul West Mission (KSWM) – President Bruce Snow Group (36 members)
  6. Korea Seoul West Mission 80-83 김차봉 Group (22 members)
  7. Korea Seoul West Mission Group (6 members)
  8. Korea Seoul West Mission – ’80-’85 Group (5 members)
  9. Seoul West South Korean Mission 2000- 2004 Group (2 members)

Korea Seoul West Mission T-Shirts

Here are T-shirts for the Korea Seoul West Mission!

Shirt designs include Korea Seoul West Mission logo/emblem shirts and Called to Serve shirts. The shirts make great gifts for pre-missionaries, returned missionaries and missionaries currently serving. LDS Mission shirts come in all sizes: Small, Medium, Large, Extra Large, up to 4XL.  The mission designs are printed on white shirts and are shipped to you.

*Simply click on a shirt design to view the details and submit an order. The designs on mission t-shirts may also be printed on other LDS mission gifts, including: Seoul West missionary aprons, Christmas stockings, ties, pillow cases, teddy bears and Christmas ornaments.

*Click here to browse Seoul West Mission gifts

Korea Seoul West Mission Presidents

Here’s a list of current and past Mission Presidents of the Korea Seoul West LDS Mission.

  1. 2010, Mission combined with the Korea Seoul Mission.
  2. 2007-2010, Craig Palmer Burton
  3. 2004-2007, Michael Tally Ringwood
  4. 2001-2004, Jay R. Bangerter
  5. 1998-2001, Hyae Kee Min
  6. 1995-1998, Earl S. Swain
  7. 1992-1995, Ronald K. Nielsen
  8. 1989-1992, Bruce Snow
  9. 1986-1989, Do Gil Whe
  10. 1983-1986, Edwin Jensen
  11. 1980-1983, Cha Bong Kim
  12. 1979-1982, D. Brent Clements
  13. 1974-1977, Eugene Powell Till
  14. 1971-1974, L. Edward Brown
  15. 1968-1971, Robert H. Slover
  16. 1965-1968, Spencer J. Palmer
  17. 1962-1965, Gail E. Carr

South Korea LDS Statistics (2016)

  • Church Membership: 87,296
  • Missions: 4
  • Temples: 1
  • Congregations: 122
  • Family History Centers: 24

Helpful Articles about South Korea

Seoul West Missionary Survey

Here are survey responses from Korea Seoul West RMs, to give you a snapshot into what it’s like to live in the mission.

*Click here to take a survey to help pre-missionaries going to your mission.

When did you serve?

  • 2000-2002 (Todd)
  • January 1998-August 1999 (Diane)
  • 1997-1999 (Taylor)
  • 1993-1995 (David)
  • 1992-1994 (Kory)
  • 1992-1994 (Justin)
  • 1993-1994 (Jill)
  • 1991-1992 (Mark)
  • 1983-1985 (Aaron)
  • 1983-1984 (Kyle)
  • 1981-1983 (Richard)

What areas did you serve in?

  • Balsan, Chunho, Hwagok, & Bangi. (Todd)
  • Shillim, Incheon (deaf branch–entire mission cities included as our area), Shingil, and Sangdo. (Taylor)
  • Shi lim dong kyung, I did Inchun for 11 months, Su wan mea tong dong shin chun. (David)
  • Inchun, Song Nam, Pyeong Tek, Yak Shil. (Kory)
  • I served in a different area every one or two months, so I don’t remember them all, but my favorites were Bongchun, Shillem, Ansan, KongBu. (Jill)
  • PyeongTaek, MaCheon, SongNim, Mission Office, SeoCho. (Mark)
  • Jaechon, Daechon, Seoul. (Aaron)
  • Shin Gil, Suwon, Seoul, Sadang Dong. (Kyle)
  • Chung Ju, Seo Dae Moon Ku, BuPyong. (Richard)

What were some favorite foods?

  • Samgyeopsal. (Todd)
  • Tuck-bo-ki fish guts on a stick (odeng) ho-duk (the sugar filled pancake) pretty much any street food that needs the fly’s swatted away before eating. (Diane)
  • Spicy Rice (sticky white rice, gochu jang, soy sauce, sesame seed oil, and eggs over easy on top). (Taylor)
  • Kimchi Chigae, Dol Sot Bibim Bap, Oching O Duk Cheong, Chajang Meun. (Kory)
  • Fried rice, kimchi soup,black sauce soup, sweet and sour pork, and most all Korean BBQ! (Justin)
  • 김치찌개 Kimchee cheegae. 불고기 Bulkogi. 짜장명 Jajang myung. 냉명 Nang myung. 찹채 Chapchae. 물 김치 radish kimchee. (Jill)
  • Bul Gogi. Kimche Chigae. (Mark)
  • Pulkalbi, Tang Su Yuk, Japchae pop. (Aaron)
  • Kimchi, pork ribs. (Richard)

What was a funny experience?

  • There were SO many!!! My trainer and I came home from a very tiring and not productive day to find the door to our apartment had rusted off its hinges. The door was just propped up against the wall next to the door frame. It took a few days to get it fixed and we just left each morning propping the door up in the door frame. We never worried about theft or anything like that… it just never occurred to us that this may not have been unsafe in any way. My companion and I were given three chicks in one area. It was a fad that everyone wanted a pet chick, it was spring – it made sense at the time… not sure what everyone else did with their chicks… We had the chicks for about 3 weeks before President Min came by for one of his check ups, found the chicks and they had to go the next day. My companion lost the keys to the Church, so… we broke into the building through some windows. But once we were in, then the room with a phone was also locked. So I helped her climb up the wall and climb in through the window above the door to the clerks office – SO funny! Not recommended in a skirt. to top it off, once we were in THEN the Elders came by…(Diane)
  • Loved the Christmas period. We dressed as Santa or his helper and for a kindergarten class were taken to every single child’s home to do the Santa bit. Loved the kids’ reaction, smiles and hugs. (David)
  • Kind of crude but there were plenty of stories of American missionaries being hit with Korean food crisis and having to find a wah jong shil NOW. I heard a couple who didn’t get to one in time. (Kory)
  • It was a learning experience. (Justin)
  • Once my Korean companion bought me something like jerky from a street vendor and made me eat it before she would tell me what it was. She had me convinced it was rat meat, but turns out it was really fish. She had me worried for a bit. I can laugh about it now. (Jill)
  • Playing spin tops with the kids outside the high rise apartments. Pretending that my Korean companion (who attended BYU Hawaii before his mission) was from America and didn’t speak Korean while I was supposedly from Pusan and needed to translate his English into Korean for the kids. Their dumbfounded faces were priceless. (Mark)
  • First night we were staying at the AP house where the Temple is today, The rats were scurrying through the attic and freaking most of us out when bam! A rat falls through the ceiling and lands right on the chest of one of the new Elders. He screamed like a little girl… (Richard)

What was a crazy experience?

  • The time we were cleaning up the Church yard as a district and we had a fire going for the leaves and debris. One Elder thought he would help the fire by adding gasoline, he went to pour straight out of the jerry can and his companion pushed him away saving his life. We had a teaching appointment we were SO excited as the area had been dry for a very long time and we were getting discouraged. My companion and I prepared the best we could, practiced potential resolutions prayed hard that something good would come of it. We get to the apartment to find a room FULL of women, as we were both non-Korean, we were not too sure what they were saying exactly and a little overwhelmed as we were only expecting a single sister to be there. The group invites us in and we sit in the customary circle around a table. My companion does a basic introduction of who we are and why we are here. She is interrupted and is asked if it was okay to start the meeting with a prayer. So we pray. As the prayer is underway, there is lots of commotion and we open our eyes to see the women covering their faces and heads with white sheer cloths and a bunch of men now join us. After the prayer is over, we are told how evil we are and how we should join them in the work they are doing. My companion and I look at each other and crazy enough, we had practiced what would happen if they introduced another church to us. So we went through our practiced dialog and excused ourselves from the meeting. That morning when we practiced possible resolutions, we thought it was crazy to talk about the introduction of another church – but we went with it and in the end that’s what was able to excuse us from the situation that could have been a very bad situation. (Diane)
  • While teaching a first discussion at Sungshil University (private Presbyterian school), a group of about ten students approached us at the pavilion and one of them commanded us to leave. He was insistent. The investigator didn’t want us to leave and even told them that emphatically. He ignored her and continued to angrily command us to go. He looked me straight in my eyes and ordered us to leave at least three times. To be continued… (Taylor)
  • Getting kidney stones and being rushed to a hospital…not fun. (David)
  • Watch out for buses. Traffic does not stop for people and you will die. (Kory)
  • Yes, I learned about a very different culture. (Justin)
  • We were followed home many times by various men who would propose to us because we were Americans. They would wait outside of the building for us to come and go. Sometimes to stay safe, we would have to crawl up the stairs of our apartment building and not turn on lights so they wouldn’t know where we lived. (Jill)
  • Chasing down a lost mission video cassette recorder on a city bus late at night (never found it). (Mark)
  • Three days into my mission we needed to go get my companion’s book stamped from the old town where he had been serving and then stamped where we would be serving. The town of DaeCheon was where we had to go. While we were there, we went to the beach and were walking along it for a bit. There was a sign in Korean and I asked my companion what it said. He looked and decided it was too hard and would take too long to figure out. We walked onto a military base and were arrested at gun point with guys yelling at us ” Hands on Head, Hands on Head!!” Yah, it was good! (Aaron)
  • Trying to catch a bus in Seoul. Often they were three deep from the curb and they would slow to a crawl and you would have to jump in. (Richard)

What was a spiritual experience?

  • Meeting Elder Holland. His talk about being an amoeba and having the mantle of Missionary placed on us. It was incredible. Then in line for over an hour to shake his hand. The craziest part was when he called me by name and said I was serving for a reason and not to give up. I had been having health issues and the option of returning early was open for me. After hearing his words, I did not return early. I served the rest of my mission and my health issues subsided. I was not blessed with the gift of tongues while serving. Yet I was still able to understand what was going on around me. I learned humility and the art of relying on others to do the Lords work. Not an easy lesson to learn. (Diane)
  • I prayed a lot in my heart while the gang of students tried to get us to leave the university. I was nervous, but then, nearby, two students stood up, and one of them said to the group, “I know we’re a Christian University and that these are Mormon missionaries, but is there some law that says they can’t be here?” The vocal leader of the group and each of his group of students were silent. Then, the two students quietly escorted the group away. There was no violence, no shouting, no anger. It was unbelievable. Then, our investigator said with disgust, “I can understand when Christians and non-Christians fight, but Christians and Christians?” I then shared 3 Nephi 11:29 about the spirit of contention that Christ taught on His first visit to the Americas (which had already astonished her–she had asked my companion incredulously just before the students came while he was teaching her about the Book of Mormon, “You mean to tell me that Christ actually visited ancient America after He was resurrected?”). The Spirit entered my heart clearly and warmly at that moment while we discussed Christ’s doctrine against contention. I sensed that she felt it, too. My companion, whom I was training, also distinctly felt it. As we left the grounds, he commented, “That was the strongest I’ve ever felt the Spirit in Korea.” It was good timing, too, because he was having some testimony troubles. Many prayers were answered that day. (Taylor)
  • We knocked on this door of this massive apartment complex. After too many rejections, a lady opened the door and invited us in and told us of a dream she had where a white man would help lead her to God. Imagine if we did not knock or had given up just before that time. Another investigator was having some doubts and I accidentally asked her to read and ponder the wrong scripture versus when we visited next she had stumbled across or was lead to the right scripture I meant to give her and it made all the difference and lead to her conversion. (David)
  • The Spirit is so strong in being poured out upon those seriously searching for God’s truth. The witness is one that I was privileged to share with investigators. (Kory)
  • Yes. (Justin)
  • I was directed many times to talk to people on the bus or subway who ended up being genuinely interested in the Gospel and took discussions. (Jill)
  • Seeing the pure joy in a new convert’s eyes after they were baptized. (Mark)
  • We were teaching an investigator while I had only been in country for two months and when my companion bore his testimony discussing the Restoration, I couldn’t understand what he said, but the Spirit was so strong that I wasn’t sure I could even breathe and I looked over at our investigator and you could see that they felt it as well. She was baptized a week later and before the end of my mission, she was the Relief Society President of the branch. (Aaron)
  • I learned that the Spirit converts, not the missionaries. It truly is the Lord’s work and He directs it. (Richard)

What are some interesting facts about the Korea Seoul West Mission?

  • We all met at a subway station for transfers. President Min would surprise visit us during the day, sometimes even for companionship study in the morning. We were discouraged strongly from using pan-mal, and any abbreviations. No cameras or photos except for baptisms and the occasional preparation day. We were there to teach the Gospel – not be tourists. (Diane)
  • When I first came into the mission, missionaries were lucky to teach one or two discussions a week. President Min came to our mission and then challenged us to teach 15 per week. I remember the district meeting where we discussed it. Everyone but me were in shock and couldn’t believe he could ask that of us. By the end of our mission, my zone (thanks to an awesome district leader we had) was the first to meet that average. That was exciting and thrilling to see President Min’s vision come true. (Taylor)
  • Loved Jangi Korean chess and got pretty good at it. I received a nickname for a then famous comic character, Agi gong young Doolie. (David)
  • I went as a ebyong Korean American. A very unique perspective with special challenges, but also special opportunities. (Kory)
  • The Confucian nature of the Korean people. (Justin)
  • My first area was super close to the DMZ, which I thought was cool, but my family didn’t. Sometimes we found propaganda flyers sent over from North Korea in balloons. I also served in the country and was fascinated to see the rice growing the fields. The Koreans take their holidays very seriously, but still love to have a good time and eat a lot. (Jill)
  • We had roughly an 80/20 split between American missionaries and Korean missionaries when I served. I understand the split is roughly the opposite of that now with more native missionaries in the mix. That is a great shift and a great success. (Mark)
  • Our President, Kim Cha Bong was a great man. He came to America and taught at Harvard University. A picture of he and his daughter is still in the “For Strength of Youth” pamphlet today. (Richard)

What was the weather like?

  • My first winter in the country was so cold, I don’t think I remember much from those months :). (Todd)
  • Wet in the spring, hot in the summer, beautiful in the fall and cool in the winter. It was wonderful to see the seasons change. (Diane)
  • Winter got so cold I threw a bean bag on top of my mat to stay warm and Summer so hot that it was common to come home for a break. (David)
  • Very, very hot. Or very, very cold. Jangmal, holy smokes! (Kory)
  • Four seasons with humidity. (Justin)
  • They have 4 seasons and a lot of humidity. The late summer/early fall is monsoon season with a lot of flooding and there is winter snow, but not a lot. Spring is always interesting because you’ll be in a coat in the morning and evening, but need short sleeves at midday. (Jill)
  • It was bitter cold in the winter (especially on the coast in Incheon) and very muggy in the summer. (Mark)
  • Cold winters and really hot summers. (Aaron)
  • Very nice in the spring and fall. Very hot and humid in the summer and very cold in the winter. (Richard)

Any things you really like about the area/people?

  • Loved it! (Todd)
  • Lack of personal space. Once you embrace this part – you will enjoy walking arm in arm with others and sharing a can of juice/pop anything really. Sense of pride. The people are proud to be Korean and have a rich culture. They are so happy to share with you the stories of their ancestors. (Diane)
  • Pretty much everything. The language was difficult at times. I remember thinking that all Koreans did as I did and translated the language from English to Korean. Their English Class and Family Home Evening were always fun experiences. (David)
  • The country was beautiful. Devoted saints in Korea are so impressive. They live true to the faith in a climate that is not friendly or rewarding to our beliefs. I have so much respect for the Korean saints. They love the gospel. (Kory)
  • I really like their work ethic. (Justin)
  • Everything. The people are the best part of being in Korea. They are very genuine and would do anything for you including giving you their clothes or jewelry if you happen to admire it. They are passionate about tradition and are a very dedicated people who respect their ancestors and elders. Also the food is very tasty. (Jill)
  • The people are very generous and friendly – especially the older generation. (Mark)
  • Everything. It was amazing and the people were incredible. (Aaron)
  • The people were great. Very humble and meek. Very loving and helpful. (Richard)

Any packing/clothing advice?

  • Bring deodorant and toothpaste. (Todd)
  • Sisters – ditch the nylons! the humidity any nylons do not mix… On day 2 of my mission in the spring rainy season, my nylons were not staying up so on a very full train on between appointments, I removed them and threw them away. Quite funny! get good walking shoes! you will be walking LOTS! and lots of stairs in and out of the train stations. (Diane)
  • I served a mini mission before going to Korea and already started bulking up so within two months of arriving in Korea I had to have two new suits made. (David)
  • Don’t take too much, you can buy it over there. If you have big feet bring extra shoes-at least when I was there the options didn’t go big enough for some elders. I wore out a lot of shoes. (Kory)
  • Pack four four seasons . Thermals help in winter. (Justin)
  • I found I needed extra changes of clothes because I got too sweaty in summer and ran out before preparation day. You can’t go wrong with a good pair of jeans too. They are often useful for service projects. And lots of socks. (Jill)
  • My suitcase came open on the way to Korea for some reason. Make sure you have good luggage and secure it well. A warm coat is a must. You will likely need a new set of garments by the middle of your mission. (Mark)
  • Take an electric blanket. (Aaron)

What blessings did you receive from serving a mission?

  • Everything. (Todd)
  • Too many to list. When I was being set apart to go and serve, my sister invited her non-member boy friend to be in the room. He felt the Spirit strong and a few months later was baptized. He considers himself the first convert of my mission. I learned to trust the Lord. Events happen in life that don’t make sense, then or even now, but trusting in the Lord, that there is a plan and a reason, life is a little easier. My faith is strong. I thought I had faith before my mission. Nope – after months of door knocking and not being able to speak or teach a thing yet seeing people prepared to hear the message of the Gospel. It was amazing! (Diane)
  • All of them including retaining enough Korean to flirt and marry a Korean who also converted and we have two beautiful young boys. (David)
  • Understanding of the gospel, God’s plan for us. His plan is perfect. His love is perfect. This path isn’t easy but one that He offered through our Savior and we were thrilled to try because of the blessings we can gain. This helps keep dealing with sadness and cruelty in the world a little easier to bear. (Kory)
  • A stronger testimony, a greater knowledge of the power of prayer, and a unique ability to understand the language even when I couldn’t speak it well. My family received temporal and spiritual blessings while I was serving too. (Jill)
  • I learned to love perfect strangers and to lean upon the Lord. I believe my wife and kids are blessed because I served. (Mark)
  • So many. Mostly, that missionaries are just the instrument God uses to find His children and it’s the Spirit that converts them. (Aaron)
  • A stronger testimony and a better gospel knowledge. (Richard)

What are some skills you gained?

  • The art of being blown off gracefully. Not taking things personally. Being able to simplify the Gospel to teach to nearly anyone in a number of situations, and sometimes people don’t even know they are being taught 🙂 (Diane)
  • Was able to communicate well enough that within six months, I was a senior companion. In the country side, hardly any westerners. (David)
  • Communication, planning and work ethic. Bring your own work ethic but be ready for it to be honed. Love the people. Don’t compare or put down anything about Korea, people or customs. You are not there to be a proud foreigner. You are there to bring light to people and love them where and how they are. Love them and their ways. By serving them with everything, you will love them more than you thought possible. (Kory)
  • The ability to talk to people. I was very shy before my mission, but left more confident and outgoing. I also learned to rely on the Lord and He will provide for your needs. And of course a new language skill. (Jill)
  • Speaking Korean, although I have not maintained it nearly as well as I had hoped. I also learned delegation and leadership through example and service. (Mark)
  • Eating with chopsticks. Language. To not be afraid of making mistakes. (Aaron)
  • Learned how to get along with other people (companions). Learned to overlook their weaknesses and learn from their strengths. (Richard)

What do you wish you knew/did at the beginning of your mission?

  • Study the language like crazy! Get used to going to bed early and walking up early. (Todd)
  • Not be so scared. I lacked confidence, so that was hard to overcome. I did with time – somewhat. I wish I could have enjoyed the mission and not been so serious. (Diane)
  • To follow the rules more. I didn’t understand many of them so they were easy to dismiss. They are there for a reason. Obedience for the sake of obedience tells much about the person choosing to follow commandments or not to. (Kory)
  • I wish I would have known better how to study and memorize so I could have learned my discussions and the language faster. Being really dedicated right at the beginning would have been better. (Jill)
  • I wish I had studied the scriptures more thoroughly before my mission. (Mark)
  • Prepared more. (Aaron)
  • I wish I would have realized how fast time goes by. When you’re busy, weeks and months fly by. Enjoy the experiences. (Richard)

Any advice/testimony for pre-missionaries going to Seoul West?

  • Remember LOVE + SPIRIT = Convert Baptisms. (Todd)
  • Enjoy the moments. the good and the bad. Be in the moment when it is happening and journal LOTS! its surprising how much you forget. (Diane)
  • I think they combined the missions. Forget yourself in the work as soon as possible. Accept your new family members and fellow members. Keep all contacts- now ya got Facebook. Awesome. Very difficult, found some old Korean companions but lost contact of everyone else. (David)
  • An elder in the MTC shared a testimony that was one of the strongest I have ever heard. It was fact. Nothing left the hearer wondering and the Spirit supported this elder’s words with power. Do all you can to prepare to be able to bear this kind of testimony. At the end of the day, this testimony is the last and best thing that you can offer. (Kory)
  • Love the people and learn to serve them. Encourage the members to get involved with missionary work. They will be a great asset to your work. You have an opportunity to go to an amazing country and learn lots of new things. Don’t waste time by not following the rules and don’t be afraid to talk to everyone. (Jill)
  • Learn to love the people and the food early on in your mission. Dive in and don’t hold back. Immerse yourself quickly in the culture. (Mark)
  • Pray hard and have faith. God will never let you down. (Aaron)

What was a funny language mistake?

  • I asked some investigators to baptize me. (Todd)
  • After a dinner appointment and sharing a message, I asked a member if she could bear her testimony. She looked at me strangely and asked me to repeat myself, I did. She got up from the table and went to the kitchen, turns out I mispronounced testimony, and asked if I could have the soy sauce…(Diane)
  • I was with a senior companion meeting with one of my contacts who was a Tai Kwan Do instructor. After leaving, he turned to me and said man he cussed a lot. I was clueless and still am. I never learned swear words. (David)
  • My first house helped me write my first talk for the Branch on Sunday. They tried to make me say ‘I am a pabo’ in my talk. Luckily I didn’t do that. (Kory)
  • Well, let’s just say there is a difference between 성교사 (sung gyosa) and 선교사 (sun gyosa) and you shouldn’t mix them up when you are telling people what you are doing in Korea. (Jill)
  • My companion and I went to a store in a small town that was in our area but outside of where we would normally be on a preparation day. We were asked by the store owner who we were or what we did. We said sunggyosa (sex teacher) instead of sungyosa (missionary). As you can imagine it went downhill from there. They asked if we taught one on one or in groups and we said yes to both….we were asked to leave. Only then did we figure out what had happened. (Aaron)
  • I humbly give soy sauce when bearing testimony in Korean. (Kyle)